Drikke

Hiv deg på fermenteringstrenden!

september 4, 2015

Charlotte Pike heter en britisk jente, bosatt i Rågeleje på Nord-Sjælland i Danmark. Hun er matskri

Charlotte Pike Foto: Tara Fisher

Charlotte Pike Foto: Tara Fisher

bent, kokk og kokebokforfatter. Hun er nå aktuell med en lekker bok om fermentering, som også blir å finne i norske bokhandlere.

Jeg har snakket med Charlotte og spurt henne litt om fermentering og hvordan man kan lage fermentert mat hjemme på enklest mulig måte. Dessuten har jeg fått tre oppskrifter av henne, slik at du og jeg kan prøve oss på den nye trenden.

Hvorfor fermentert mat? Er det på grunn av smak, trend, tradisjoner eller helsemessige årsaker du startet med å interessere deg for fermentert mat?

– For meg er fermentering en mystisk kunstform. Jeg ønsket å prøve noe nytt i kjøkkenveien, og interessen rundt denne nye trenden var utløsende for meg. Jeg ønsket å få de helsemessige fordelene av fermentert mat og drikke inn i kostholdet mitt, for det er en av de mest fordelaktige kostholdsendringer du kan gjøre, men jeg ønsket å vite hvordan man gjør det selv, og denne boken er et resultat av min forskning om temaet fermentering. Da jeg fant ut hvordan jeg skulle lage disse deilig fermenterte matrettene og drikkene, ville jeg innlemme dem i kostholdet mitt, i herlige hverdagsoppskrifter, og slik ble boken til.

En sommer er snart bak oss og vi har spist og drukket godt. Er fermentert mat bra for vekttap eller som detox?

– Fermentert mat kan hjelpe til med vekttap, men jeg vil anbefale det mer for generell bedre helse, som for eksempel å bedre fordøyelsen og immunforsvaret. Mange har rapportert vekttap fra fermentert mat og drikke, men jeg liker å tenke på det som en positiv endring for å hjelpe din generelle helse, i stedet for vekttap alene.

Ok. Hvis jeg skulle begynne å lage fermentert mat hjemme. Hva trenger jeg, og hva gjør jeg? Hvor kan jeg kjøpe de tingene jeg trenger å bruke for å lage enkle fermenterte retter?

– Alt du trenger er noen glasskrukker, et par kjøkkenboller og et målebeger til å begynne med. Du trenger finmasket klede og hyssing hvis du gjør labneh (fermentert yoghurt), men det er det. Ingen spesialutstyr er nødvendig, og det betyr at du kan komme i gang med en gang, samtidig som det ikke koster deg stort.

Hvor skal jeg begynne? Hva er retten jeg burde begynne å lage? Den enkleste DIY-fermenterte retten?

– Jeg liker å oppfordre folk til å starte med å lage labneh, som er fermentert yoghurt fra Midtøsten. Den har utallige bruksområder i både søte og salte retter, og er veldig enkelt å lage, og på samme tid føles det som om du lager noe spennende og eksotisk, men som allikevel krever svært liten innsats. Det er en ganske idiotsikker oppskrift.

Hva slags skandinavisk fermentert mat bruker vi allerede uten å vite det? Har Scandinavia har en lang historie og tradisjon med fermentert mat?

– En av de mest brukte fermenterte matvarene i Skandinavia er surdeigsbrød. Jeg lærte å lage rugsurdeig med Trine Hahnemann på Ballymaloe Cookery School, som var veldig interessant. Mange tradisjonelle rugbrød er laget ved hjelp av en surdeigsstarter, som er brukes igjen og igjen hver gang du lager et brød. Skandinavia er også kjent for sin fermenterte fisk og melk, og jeg har funnet noen nystartede firma i København som lager noen fantastiske fermenterte fruktdrikker. (Hellskitchen an.merk. Se da jeg besøkte Fermented Works i København). Det er en lang tradisjon for å bruke fermentert mat og drikke i kulturer over hele verden. Vi reviderer disse tradisjonene i vesten etter at vi er blitt dyttet ut av kurs av industrialiseringen som har rammet matproduksjonsprosessene.

Hvorfor bor du i Danmark nå, og hva jobber du med?

– Jeg jobber fortsatt som matskribent og jeg forsker fremdeles på bruken av fermentet mat og drikke i Skandinavia mens jeg er her.

Jeg er også privat-chef for et lite antall kunder over hele verden – hvorav en er basert i Danmark.

 Koreansk kimchi Foto: Tara Fisher

Koreansk kimchi Foto: Tara Fisher

Jeg har fått tre oppskrifter fra boken hennes, som jeg gjengir på engelsk. (Har du problemer med engelske oppskrifter, får du sende meg en mail, så skal jeg oversette for deg:)

Kimchi

Kimchi is an essential component of Korean cuisine, as it is served with almost every meal. It is still made in the autumn, in a UNESCO-protected process called Kimjang, when families come together to make their own recipes, which are passed down through the generations. With many regional differences in ingredients and methods, making and eating kimchi is a firm part of Korean heritage. My recipe is for a slightly sweet, tangy kimchi with a crunchy texture. I prefer to thinly slice the cabbage, but you could chop it into chunky pieces if you wish. Personally, I like everything cut up quite small.

MAKES 1 X 1.5-LITRE JAR
825g total weight of organic white cabbage, thinly sliced and Chinese leaf, cut into 5cm chunks, using more or less of each, as you prefer
50g fresh root ginger, peeled and finely grated
6 garlic cloves, peeled and finely chopped
50g fresh red chillies, such as fresno or
serenade, thinly sliced (leaving the seeds in)
3 organic carrots, peeled and coarsely grated
1 bunch of organic spring onions, thinly sliced
400ml fish sauce
65g palm sugar
zest and juice of 2 limes
200ml filtered water (see page 8)
you will need a 1.5-litre glass Le-Parfait-style jar with a rubber seal, sterilised according to the instructions (se nederst)
TIP:
Ensure the vegetables are submerged in the brine at all times to inhibit mould from forming on the surface. Place the cabbage, Chinese leaf, ginger, garlic, chillies, carrots and spring onions in a large mixing bowl and mix well together with your hands until evenly combined. Transfer the mixture to a 1.5-litre jar.
Add the fish sauce, sugar, lime zest and juice and water to a jug and stir to dissolve the palm sugar. Pour into the jar, stir well with a wooden spoon or spatula and press down any vegetables that are poking out of the liquid.
Close the lid and set aside to ferment on the kitchen worksurface for at least a week. When the kimchi is ready it should smell strongly of its component ingredients, but not be unpleasant. It won’t change drastically in appearance, but the vegetables will soften a little.
The kimchi keeps for up to 2 months in a cool, dark place. Once opened, store in the fridge and eat within a month.

Hjemmelaget yoghurt Foto: Tara Fisher

Hjemmelaget yoghurt Foto: Tara Fisher

Homemade whole milk yogurt

Making your own yogurt is very straightforward and tremendously satisfying. It is not necessarily cheaper than buying it in, but it is a lovely thing to do – especially if you can source some good, local milk. The milk powder thickens the yogurt, and I think it tastes better with it included. If you prefer a creamier yogurt still, you can substitute 100ml of the milk with single cream.
MAKES APPROX. 500ML
2 heaped tablespoons organic live yogurt
500ml organic whole milk
3 tablespoons milk powder
you will need a digital thermometer and a 1-litre Thermos flask, spotlessly clean

TIP:
It’s vital that everything is spotlessly clean when making yogurt. To ensure your equipment is in perfect condition, place the whisk and metal spoon inside the mixing bowl and fill it to the brim with boiling water before use. Dip the thermometer tip in, too. Pour the water away, dry the equipment using a clean tea towel or kitchen paper before using. Place the yogurt in a spotlessly clean large glass or ceramic mixing bowl and allow it to come up to room temperature, approx. 20–30 minutes. Pour the milk into a clean saucepan and heat very gently over a very low heat until it reaches exactly 46°C – don’t let it get any warmer than this or it
will kill the live cultures in the yogurt when the two are combined. Remove the pan from the heat, sprinkle the milk powder over the surface and whisk it in thoroughly. Carefully pour the warm milk over the yogurt in the bowl and stir well with a metal spoon.
Pour the yogurt into the Thermos flask. Screw on the lid and set aside on the kitchen worksurface overnight.
By morning, your milk should have thickened and turned into yogurt.
Decant it into jars or a Tupperware container, cover with clingfilm or a lid and store in the fridge. Eat within 5 days.

Hjemmelaget Kombucha.

Hjemmelaget Kombucha.

Kombucha

Kombucha is a delicious fermented sweet tea. It is made using a scoby (Symbiotic Colony Of Bacteria and Yeast), which can either be bought or passed on from a friend. The scoby looks most unusual, but it produces the most delicious drink that is lightly effervescent and tastes of apples. You will need a small amount of kombucha to start a batch, so this is a great recipe to do with your friends and share amongst one
another. Scobies can be peeled in half, or cut into quarters and pieces.
MAKES APPROX. 2.5 LITRES
2 heaped tablespoons black loose-leaf tea (I use English Breakfast)
200g organic cane sugar
1 litre boiling water
1 litre filtered water (see page 8)
1 scoby or scoby piece (available online)
250ml Kombucha (available online, or from a friend)
you will need a 3-litre glass Le-Parfait-style jar with a rubber seal, sterilised according
to the instructions (Se nedenfor)
Put the tea, sugar and boiling water in a jug and stir well to dissolve the sugar. Set aside to infuse and cool to room temperature.
Strain the tea into a 3-litre glass jar and add the remaining ingredients. Stir well with a wooden spoon and then fasten the lid.
Set aside to ferment on the kitchen worksurface for 5 days, after which time the kombucha will smell appley and lightly vinegary, and look clearer and more orange in colour. I prefer to drink the kombucha at the younger stage, after 5 days, however you can leave it to ferment for up to 2 weeks if you wish. You will find that the flavour will become progressively more vinegary and effervescent the longer the kombucha ferments. I recommend starting by drinking a 150ml glass (no larger) of kombucha. Reserve 250ml of the
kombucha to make a second batch.

Put the tea, sugar and boiling water in a jug and stir well to dissolve the sugar. Set aside to infuse and cool to room temperature.
Strain the tea into a 3-litre glass jar and add the remaining ingredients. Stir well with a wooden spoon and then fasten the lid.
Set aside to ferment on the kitchen worksurface for 5 days, after which time the kombucha will smell appley and lightly vinegary, and look clearer and more orange in colour. I prefer to drink the kombucha at the younger stage, after 5 days, however you can leave it to ferment for up to 2 weeks if you wish. You will find that the flavour will become progressively more vinegary and effervescent the longer the kombucha ferments. I recommend starting by drinking a 150ml glass (no larger) of kombucha. Reserve 250ml of the
kombucha to make a second batch.

Water
Pure water is essential for fermenting. Any chemicals like chlorine in the water will not allow your food to ferment as it should.
If you’re on mains water, never use water straight from the tap, as the chlorine present in the supply will
inhibit the fermentation process. You can use pure bottled mineral water, or for a more economical and
ecological option, pour tap water into a large, wide, shallow bowl and leave it to sit, uncovered, overnight.
The chlorine will evaporate and the water will be good to use. Filtered tap water is fine to use, but again I recommend you leave it overnight as with tap water. The quality of the water you use is crucial for making fermented drinks such as Water Kefir and Kombucha. Water is lacto-fermented by adding water kefir grains, a live, active culture. They look like small, gelatinous crystals, and are little structures made of bacteria and yeast which feed on sugar and convert it into beneficial bacteria, enzymes and
nutrients. There is no need to rinse the kefir grains between uses. Lacto-fermentation is the process brought about by the lactobacillu bacteria (named so because they were first discovered in milk, even though this form of fermentation is not restricted to milk products). Lactobacillus bacteria convert sugar into lactic acid, which inhibits harmful bacteria from growing, and increases the vitamin and enzyme levels in food and drink, as well as boosting digestibility. Kombucha is made using a Scoby, which is an acronym for Symbiotic Colony Of Bacteria and Yeast, another culture; a living home for bacteria and yeast, like water
kefir grains, but which looks totally different. Typically a light brown colour with tinges of orange, a scoby
looks a bit like a strange gelatinous pancake, often with brown strands of yeast growing from it. It will grow
over time, and layers can be peeled off to make new batches. Scobies tend to thrive when given a rich dose of minerals. If you’re fortunate enough to have a supply of freshly drawn water at home, you may notice your fermented drinks flourish particularly well. That’s not to say your ferments won’t work using mains water, provided you have allowed the chlorine to evaporate off, but you may like to give your drinks a boost by using pure mineral water (say one in every four ferments).

Sterilising jars
In order to ferment successfully your equipment must be scrupulously clean. In terms of cleaning and preparing my equipment, I follow the same procedure as I do with preserving: I like to run my containers through the dishwasher on a hot cycle and use them shortly afterwards. Hand washing is fine as long as you use detergent and plenty of hot water and rinse thoroughly. You may wish to rinse your equipment and vessels again after removing them from the dishwasher, just in case the detergent hasn’t been removed effectively by the rinse cycle.

Boken får du kjøpt i bokhandelen nå. Fermented by Charlotte Pike is published by Kyle Books.

Boken får du kjøpt i bokhandelen nå. Fermented by Charlotte Pike is published by Kyle Books.

Kanskje liker du disse også

Ingen Kommentarer

Legg inn en kommentar